AP Bio Study Guide

Big Idea 3.E

What is the structure of a neuron?

A neuron consists of a cell body, dendrites, and axons. Dendrites receive incoming messages from other cells and carry the electrical signal to the cell body. Axons transmit an impulse from the cell body outward to another cell.

Many axons are wrapped in a fatty myelin sheath, which insulates the axon and allows for more efficient transmission of electrical impulses.

Between two neurons, there is a gap called a synapse, where chemical signals cross.