AP Bio Study Guide

Big Idea 2

Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.

A: Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization of living systems require free energy and matter.

What are the laws of thermodynamics?

What are exergonic and endergonic reactions?

What is the difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph?

How does photosynthesis work?

How does cellular respiration work?

B: Growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis require that cells create and maintain internal environments that are different from their external environments.

What is the fluid mosaic model?

What is the difference between hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic?

What is passive transport?

What is active transport?

What are the functions of the nucleus, ER, Golgi, and lysosome?

C: Organisms use feedback mechanisms to regulate growth and reproduction, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.

What are negative and positive feedback mechanisms?

D: Growth and dynamic homeostasis of a biological system are influenced by changes in the system’s environment.

What is symbiosis, and what types exist?

How do plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates respond to pathogens?

How does the mammalian immune system work?

E: Many biological processes involved in growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis include temporal regulation and coordination.

What are homeotic genes?

What are MicroRNA and Small interfering RNA?

What role does apoptosis play in normal development and differentiation?

What are phototropism and photoperiodism?